Red Yeast Rice is rice that is fermented with the yeast Monascus purpureus. There are many strains of the yeast Monascus purpureus, and one of them, the ‘Went’ strain, when appropriately fermented, yields 0.4% monacolin K.
Research has found Red Yeast Rice to be as effective as and in certain cases more effective than cholesterol lowering drugs. Unived’s RYR is a natural product, standardized to 0.4% monacolin K, the international standard for safe, cholesterol lowering Red Yeast Rice.
- RYR is more efficacious and better tolerated as compared to synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs.
- Red Yeast Rice is clinically proven to decrease LDL by 20-30% and increase HDL by 14-20%.
- Unived’s RYR has no known side-effects unlike the synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs which are associated with cell death, impaired memory, liver toxicity, muscle damage, and CoQ10 depletion.[3,4,5,6]
- Unived’s RYR is vegan and encapsulated in 100% vegetarian capsules made from plant derived cellulose.
Natural RYR vs synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs
Red Yeast Rice is a traditional Chinese concept demonstrated through several studies, to lower lipid levels. Red Yeast Rice, also known as Monascus purpureus rice, is derived from the ‘Went‘ strain of M. pupureus, and is prepared by the traditional rice fermentation method. Synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs came into the market in the late 70s when the cholesterol lowering agent was isolated by scientists from the Aspergillus oryzae. Monascus and Aspergillus were both being studied at the same time.
Chemical structure and composition
Monacolin K is the key ingredient of Red Yeast Rice whereas it’s also the key ingredient of some synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs. A popular cholesterol lowering drug and monacolin K have an identical chemical structure and both work as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors causing inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the liver.
However unlike synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs, Red Yeast Rice also contains nutritional elements such as proteins, sterols, isoflavone and its glycosides, unsaturated fatty acids, saponin and sapogenins and some trace elements – these enhance the cholesterol lowering action of Red Yeast Rice. Its active constituents include monacolin K, dihydromoncolin, and monacolin I to VI.
Red Yeast Rice is more efficacious than some synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs. In one of the trials comparing the effects of Red Yeast Rice and another synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs, subjects with high cholesterol were given either 2,400mg of Red Yeast Rice or 20mg of Pravacol. 12 weeks later, Red Yeast Rice was not only found to be more effective, it was also better tolerated than cholesterol lowering drug.
While cholesterol lowering drugs will only lower LDL – Unived’s RYR effectively reduces LDL (bad) cholesterol as well as triglyceride levels and improves HDL (good) cholesterol levels.
RYR is proven to increase HDL levels by 14-20%.
Safety: Side-effects of Red Yeast Rice
Synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs are popularly prescribed to treat individuals with high cholesterol, due to their cholesterol lowering effect.
- Several trials evaluating the effect of cholesterol lowering drug therapy, report significant depletion in blood CoQ10 levels, more so when cholesterol lowering drugs are taken at higher doses and most notably in the elderly.
- Synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs can have several side-effects including impaired memory, liver damage, muscle loss.
- Cholesterol lowering drug treatment can modify expression of genes and may be involved in cell death.
- A particular cholesterol lowering drug was withdrawn from the US market in 2001 due to 52 deaths attributed to the drug-induced rhabdomyolysis causing kidney failure.
Unived’s RYR contains Red Yeast Rice that is free from citrinin and any other impurities. Red Yeast Rice and therapeutic lifestyle may oﬀer a lipid lowering option for treating patients with a history of cholesterol lowering drug therapy intolerance.
Red Yeast Rice contains 0.4% monacolin K which is similar in structure and function to cholesterol lowering drugs but is free from the associated side-effects. Unived’s RYR has no known side-effects.
Daily intake of RYR – standardized Red Yeast Rice – assists you in managing your cholesterol without the adverse effects attributed to cholesterol lowering drugs. Each capsule contains 600mg of Red Yeast Rice standardized to 0.4% monacolin K – the international standard for cholesterol lowering Red Yeast Rice. 2400mg of standardized Red Yeast Rice is the ideal dosage to lower LDL and triglycerides, and increase HDL.
As a dietary supplement, we recommend you consume two vegetarian capsules, twice a day. This gives you 2400mg of Red Yeast Rice every day – the required dose for effective cholesterol management.
We do not recommend you to consume RYR, if you are already consuming synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs. You must first stop the consumption of cholesterol lowering drugs, and then begin RYR. It is not recommended to take cholesterol lowering drugs & RYR together.
If you are pregnant, nursing, breast-feeding; or if you are undergoing any serious medical complications, please do not consume any products on your own without the full knowledge and guidance of your doctor/physician.
What is RYR – Red Yeast Rice
Red Yeast Rice is a unique produce of culture, an ideal example of how natural remedies are embedded in our traditional culinary practices. A staple diet in many Asian countries, Red Yeast Rice is used to make rice wine, for flavor, and to preserve the flavor and color of fish and meat. Inherent to Chinese cuisine for centuries, Red Yeast Rice has also been used as medicinal food to promote ‘blood circulation’.
Red Yeast Rice finds a cultural reference in ‘koji‘, a Japanese word which implies a grain or bean allowed to overgrow with a mold culture. Koji is a mold culture prepared by growing either Aspergillus oryzae or Monascus purpureus mold on cooked grains or soybeans in a warm, humid place. Koji serves as a source of enzymes that break down natural plant constituents into simpler compounds when making miso, soy sauce, sake, amazake, and other fermented foods.
- The history of Koji dates as far back as 300 BC, finding a mention in the culinary tradition of the Chinese Zhou dynasty and has eventually become a popular term with its widespread usage in cuisines across cultures of the world.
- Red rice koji is made using Monascus purpureus on rice; it is called ‘beni koji’ in Japan and ‘hongqu’ in China; both these terms mean ‘red koji’. Red Yeast Rice acquires its reddish purple shade due to its interaction with Monascus purpureus.
- Li Shizhen, a prominent pharmacologist of the Chinese Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) described ‘hongqu‘ as ‘sweet in flavor and warm in property’ (Chen, 1982), and as having the property to ‘promote digestion and blood circulation and strengthen the spleen.'
- Furthermore, a monograph of Chinese medicine, published by Li Shin-chun (1590) describes its utilization as a coloring agent and a medicine in the treatment of various diseases.
Research in modern times
- Several centuries later, in the late 1970s, cholesterol inhibiting agent was isolated from Aspergillus. Around the same time in another part of the world, an analogue denoted as monacolin K, with a slightly greater efficacy was isolated.
- A key compound in Red Yeast Rice is monacolin K that is useful in reducing cholesterol production. It inhibits the action of key enzyme in the liver (HMG Co-A reductase) that has rate controlling impact in cholesterol synthesis.
Red Yeast Rice lowers cholesterol
An increasing number of practitioners across the world, particularly in the US and Europe ascribe significant cholesterol-lowering properties to Red Yeast Rice. Several clinical observations in the last decade have shown Red Yeast Rice to be effective in lowering blood-lipid levels.
Benefits of Red Yeast Rice Supplement
In his book ‘Eat to Live’, Joel Fuhrman MD, says about cardiovascular diseases, ‘Every heart attack death is even more of a tragedy because it likely could have been prevented.’
High cholesterol or Hypercholesterolemia (also referred to as hyperlipidemia), is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and its symptoms are seldom manifest until the serum lipid levels are severely elevated and cross the range at which cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased.
Epidemiologic studies predict that for each 1% reduction in the level of LDL cholesterol there is a 1% to 1.5% reduction in the risk of major cardiovascular events. Well tolerated lipid-lowering therapies, along with lifestyle modifications go a long way in helping individuals maintain healthy lipid levels.
Young adults and working professionals
Hyperlipidemia is affecting millions of young people, the world over. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. They encounter multiple co-morbidities due to abnormal lipid-levels in their blood. To treat these, a majority of them are prescribed with cholesterol lowering drug therapy.
Leading cardiologist Dr. Stephen Sinatra is not in favor of using cholesterol lowering drugs, ‘…they have horrific side effects… If you treat a woman in her 30s just for “high cholesterol,” and treating numbers, I think we’re doing a disservice… We really shouldn’t use them in elderly people. We shouldn’t use them in young people, or in women. I have been very disappointed as a clinical cardiologist in the efficacy of cholesterol lowering drugs in women, even with advanced coronary disease.'
- There is higher frequency of heart attack instances in young people in metros, more specifically among men in their 20s, 30s and 40s. Most of them tend to ignore warning signs like giddiness, fatigue, and chest pain, believing that heart attack or high cholesterol levels are diseases of the elderly.
- A recent survey conducted by Metropolis Healthcare, involving men and women within age group 25-45 years, tested them for cholesterol (total), triglycerides level, HDL (good) cholesterol and LDL (bad) cholesterol. The object was to evaluate risk factors for coronary diseases. It revealed that as many as 25% of men suffered from high or abnormal levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.
- A study conducted by the South Asian Health Centre among Asian Indian men showed that half of all heart attacks in this population occur under the age of 50 years, and 25% under the age of 40.
- Cholesterol lowering drug therapy can affect the overall quality of life among young adults and young professionals with a host of side-effects such as memory loss, muscle damage, and CoQ10 depletion.
- Cholesterol lowering drugs induced myalgias are a major clinical threat as more clinicians will continue to administer cholesterol lowering drugs as a first line of treatment to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with hyperlipidemia.
- One of the best alternatives to cholesterol lowering drugs is Red Yeast Rice. Unived’s RYR reduces LDL cholesterol and triglycerides count and increases HDL cholesterol, thus improving your overall lipid profile.
- RYR has no known side-effect and is a safe and solution for managing your lipid profile.
- Red Yeast Rice and lifestyle changes decreases LDL cholesterol levels without increasing CPK (an enzyme found in heart, brain and skeletal muscle) or pain levels and may be a treatment option for dyslipidemia patients who cannot tolerate choleserol lowering drug therapy.
Since vegans follow a plant only nutritious diet, the dietary factors relating to the occurrence of high cholesterol are reduced to a minimum. So you are on a much better ground, as far cholesterol is concerned, as compared to meat and dairy eaters.
- However several other factors such as familial hypercholesterolemia, stress, lack of physical exercise and excessive consumption of fatty foods also lead to hyperlipidemia. Therefore you need to keep your cholesterol levels in check.
- Lowering cholesterol levels prevent coronary artery disease in people with hypercholesterolemia, as well as decrease the risk of recurrent coronary events and procedures in patients with coronary artery disease. Excess cholesterol needs to be cleared from your bloodstream since living with higher levels of cholesterol produce early heart problems.
- Unived’s RYR brings natural vegan Red Yeast Rice to elevate your HDL (good) cholesterol levels and lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol and triglyceride count.
- Also, since RYR is 100% free from citrinin has no known side effects and is safe for long term consumption. It is not tested on animals.
- A daily dose of Red Yeast Rice safely reduces elevated cholesterol levels, decreases a marker of inflammation, and lowers markers of vascular remodeling, according to as supporting the safety and efficacy of the supplement.
The Quintessential Indian
In India, cardiovascular diseases are a major public health concerns. Ethnicity is one of the determinants of absolute risk of coronary disease for given levels of cholesterol and Asian-Indians have the highest risk.
- One of the major contributing factors for hypertriglyceridemia in our population could be a diet replete in carbohydrates and saturated fats. Besides, Indians tend to overcook food which destroys nutrients. Deep frying and refrying in the same oil lead to higher trans-fatty acids in the body.
- The lipid, lipoprotein and glucose profiles in urban Indian population reveal high instances of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and abnormally high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels. These are major factors culpable for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
- The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia differs between the age groups and it was higher in men than in women.
- Right cholesterol management involves a combination of lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes, physical exercise and cholesterol lowering therapy. However such an integrated approach is seldom adopted.
- Several studies have shown that Red Yeast Rice has LDL (bad) cholesterol and triglyceride lowering impact. It also increases the HDL (good) cholesterol count.
- Taking 2.4 grams per day of Red Yeast Rice reduced LDL levels by 22% and total cholesterol by 16% in 12 weeks.
- Unived’s RYR is 100% natural and has no known side-effects. It is well suited and even important for the Indian lifestyle since there is a rise in Indians suffering from high cholesterol. Cholesterol management has become an important aspect of the Indian lifestyle.
- RYR with 0.4% monacolin K gives effective results with long term use by safely inhibiting the production of unhealthy cholesterol and triglycerides.
Cholesterol predisposition and family history
When are you predisposed to high cholesterol genetically? Medical practitioners use the term familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) to indicate the condition of high cholesterol being passed down to you through your family members. It is one of the risk factors that you cannot control since it is not due to external factors such as unhealthy lifestyles, but to genetics.
You are more likely to have high cholesterol:
- If you have a close male relative (father or brother) aged less than 55 years or a female relative (mother or sister) aged under 65 years, with a history of coronary heart disease or stroke.
- If a close relative, such as a parent, brother or sister has familial hypercholesterolemia.
- FH affects about one in every 500 people but few realize they have the condition. If left untreated, people with FH have a 20-fold increased chance of a heart attack.
- Although occurrence of FH cannot be controlled by the lifestyle modifications, it is possible to minimize its severity by adopting certain measures such as regular exercise, healthy eating habits and the right kind of medication.
- By and large, cholesterol lowering drugs are the first recourse that practitioners take to treat cholesterol. However, synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs can induce severe muscle related complications including cholesterol lowering drug-induced myopathy, manifesting as myalgia, myositis, or rhabdomyolysis.
- With Unived’s RYR you can avoid these side-effects. RYR is formulated using the right dosage of red yeast rice derived from the fermentation action of the natural yeast ‘Monascus purpureus’ on rice.
Smoking destroys your health in many ways. Causing cholesterol related complications is one of them.
- Although smoking does not directly raise cholesterol levels, it has a negative impact due to its HDL (good) cholesterol lowering effect, putting you at a higher risk of heart disease.
- Smoking poses higher coronary artery disease risk in people who already have high cholesterol. It also affects the occurrence of other diseases such as high blood pressure and diabetes, which in turn poses risk of heart disease.
- Using cigarettes also damages the lining of the blood vessels and increases the likelihood of developing blood clots that lead to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
- Cigarettes contain a number of toxins. Among them is a particularly reactive chemical compound called acrolein, the harshness of which is so high that it is used as a constituent in pesticides and chemical weapons.
- This has even more dangerous implications when you consider that acrolein is easily absorbed into the bloodstream through the lungs, and scientists believe it contributes to heart disease by affecting the way the body metabolizes cholesterol.
- So if you smoke, quit. To solve your cholesterol problems opt for natural therapy rather than synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs. Instead of further deteriorating your health with cholesterol lowering drug induced side-effects, you can chose to improve your overall serum lipid profile with lifestyle modifications and the right dosage of Red Yeast Rice.
- Unived’s RYR reduces LDL (bad) cholesterol and triglycerides, and increases your (good) HDL cholesterol. To further enhance your health and regain your energy, you can take CoQ10 supplements to maintain your CoQ10 levels as per the body’s requirements.
What is cholesterol?
Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) substance made in the liver. Your body needs cholesterol in order to perform certain functions. The adrenal glands use it to form hormones such as cortisol, testicles use it to form testosterones and ovaries it use to form estrogen and progesterone. Cholesterol is also required to produce vitamin D and bile acids to aid digestion and for cell formation and repair. The cholesterol levels in the blood are required to be in proportion to the body’s requirement. They begin to spoil your body’s balance if they cross the healthy levels. Cholesterol is transported in the blood stream as lipoproteins.
What are lipoproteins?
Lipids are mobile in the bloodstream as ‘lipoproteins’. These lipids include cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids, and triglycerides. Lipids are transported in the blood as large ‘lipoproteins’. Hyperlipidemia is a condition wherein the lipid levels in the blood are higher than normal. It is also called as hypercholesterolemia.
What are good cholesterol and bad cholesterol?
LDL cholesterol, the cholesterol carried in LDL particles, is the ‘bad’ cholesterol. When elevated, LDL cholesterol can promote coronary artery disease. HDL cholesterol, the cholesterol carried in HDL particles, is the ‘good’ cholesterol. It protects against coronary artery disease.
What is hyperlipidemia?
Hyperlipidemia involves an excess of lipids (fat content) in the bloodstream. The major lipids in the bloodstream include cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Lipids are mobile in the bloodstream as ‘lipoproteins’. When you check your serum lipid profile you will find that it gives you a report of the ‘total cholesterol’, LDL (bad) cholesterol, HDL (good) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in your blood. A healthy lipid profile is an important factor in cardiovascular health and hyperlipidemia is a major but modifiable risk element for causing coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis.
What is a cholesterol lowering drug?
A cholesterol lowering drug is a drug that has a cholesterol lowering effect on your body. They are a class of medicines used to lower your blood cholesterol levels. They do this by inhibiting the HMG-Co-A reductase enzyme which plays a key role in cholesterol synthesis.
What is Red Yeast Rice?
Red Yeast Rice is an ancient Chinese medicine that has cholesterol lowering properties. It is prepared by fermenting rice, using a mold culture of red yeast or Monascus purpureus. It is reddish purple in color and acquires the same from the yeast. The use of Red Yeast Rice as part of cuisine has been culturally prevalent since 300 BC. Referred to as honqu (Chinese) or Ben koji (Japanese), it also finds mention in ancient Chinese pharmacological texts as having medicinal use.
Red Yeast Rice became known in the dietary supplements market in the late 70s when monacolin K was isolated from it. Monacolin K is similar in structure to a specific cholesterol lowering drug. It is responsible for the cholesterol lowering action of Red Yeast Rice and does so by blocking the action of HMG-Co-A reductase enzyme, a key element in cholesterol synthesis.
Why should I buy Red Yeast Rice from Unived?
Unived uses standardized Red Yeast Rice that is fermented with the yeast Monascus purpureus consisting of the active compound monacolin K. Unived RYR – standardized Red Yeast Rice – is fermented in a facility that holds approval from various certifying authorities such as ISO 9001, GMP, HACCP, and USDA organic. The facility is approved by one of the world’s leading verification, inspection, testing, and certification services company – SGS, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
What are the side-effects of cholesterol lowering drugs?
Although synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs effectively lower cholesterol levels in your blood, they also have a host of negative side effects including muscle pain, memory loss and CoQ10 depletion. In case of long term use, the muscular degeneration could turn much graver and lead to conditions such as myalgia and rhabdomyolisis.
Does Red Yeast Rice have any side-effects?
Red Yeast Rice is a natural alternative to cholesterol lowering drugs and lowers cholesterol with more efficacy. Further, it is better tolerated by the body than the synthetic cholesterol lowering drugs. Unived’s Red Yeast Rice is 100% free of citrinin and has 0.4% monacolin K which is the key ingredient that lowers cholesterol in the blood. Unived’s RYR has no side-effects.
Is Unived Red Yeast Rice suitable for vegans?
Unived’s RYR is standardized, vegan and packaged in vegetarian capsules.
Majority of the products you find in the market use gelatin based capsules (derived from animal fat and cow bones). These can be hazardous to health as they may carry toxins and diseased animal tissues due to unsafe manufacturing practices, leading to mad cow disease and other health issues. Unived uses 100% vegetarian capsules that are made from cellulose of plants.
The vegetarian capsules are packaged in DMF grade HDPE bottles – this is the highest quality of packaging in the industry and is made from completely virgin HDPE. Our bottles are manufactured at a facility that is registered with the US FDA, Canadian FDA, and is ISO 9001-2008 certified.
Unived RYR – standardized Red Yeast Rice – is 100% natural, and completely citrinin free. This product contains no wheat gluten, milk/dairy, soy protein, corn, sugar, sodium, starch, artificial coloring, preservatives, animal products, or flavoring. Unived respects animal rights and does not undertake animal testing for its products.
1. Halbert SC et al, ‘Tolerability of red yeast rice (2,400 mg twice daily) versus [cholesterol lowering drug] (20 mg twice daily) in patients with previous [cholesterol lowering drug] intolerance’, American Journal of Cardiology, Jan 2010, vol. 105 (2), pg.198-204.
2. Dr. Ann Gerhardt MD, ‘Healthy Choices for Mind and Body’, 07/2006.
3. Camelia Stancu & Anca Sima, ‘[Cholesterol lowering drugs]: mechanism of action and effects’, Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 2001, vol. 5 (4), pg. 378-87.
4. Matthew Klimek et al, ‘Safety and Efficacy of Red Yeast Rice (Monascus purpureus) as an Alternative Therapy for Hyperlipidemia’, P&T, June 2009, vol. 34 (6), pg. 313-327.
5. PH Langsjoen & AM Langsjoen, ‘The clinical use of HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors and the associated depletion of the essential co-factor coenzyme Q10. A review of animal and human publications’, BioFactors 18, IOS Press, 2003, pg. 101–111.
6. Medical News Today, ‘Some [cholesterol lowering drugs] may impair Memory’, 26 September, 2013.
7. K S Lyons, ‘ [Cholesterol lowering drugs] in the Beginning’, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians Edinburgh, Dec 2009, vol. 39(4), pg. 362-4.
8. Junxian Wang et al, ‘Multi-Center Clinical Trial of the Serum of Lipid Lowering Effects of a Monascus Purpureus (Red Yeast) Rice Preparation from Traditional Chinese Medicine’, Current Therapeutic Research, Dec 1997, vol. 58(12), pg. 964-978.
9. Patrick L & Uzick M quoted in Matthew Klimek et al, ‘Safety and Efficacy of Red Yeast Rice (Monascus purpureus) as an Alternative Therapy for Hyperlipidemia’, Pharmacy & Therapeutics, June 2009, vol. 34 (6), pg. 313-327.
10. Ozlem Erdogrul & Sebile Azirak, ‘Review of the Studies on the Red Yeast Rice (Monascus purpureus)’, Turkish Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 2004, vol. 2, pg. 37-49.
11. David Becker, MD & Ram Gordon MD, ‘The Lipid-Lowering Properties of Red Yeast Rice’, American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, Virtual Mentor, Jun 2011, vol. 13 (6), pg. 365-368.
12. Emile G. Bliznakov M D, ‘Coenzyme Q10, Lipid Lowering drugs and Cholesterol: A present day Pandora’s Box’, The Journal of American Nutraceutical Association, 2002, vol. 5 (3), pg.32-38.
13. Agata Leszczynska et al, ‘Different [cholesterol lowering drugs] produce highly divergent changes in gene expression profiles of human hepatoma cells: a pilot study’, Acta Biochimica Polonica, 2011, vol. 58 (4), pg. 635-9.
14. Curt Furberg & Bertram Pitt, ‘Withdrawal of [cholesterol lowering drug] from the World Market’, Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2001, vol. 2 (5), pg. 205-7.
15. Changling Li et al, ‘Monascus purpureus fermented rice (red yeast rice): A natural food product that lowers blood cholesterol in animal models of hypercholesterolemia’, Nutrition Research, Jan 1998, vol. 18 (1), pg. 71-81.
16. William Shurtleff & Akiko Aoyagi, ‘History of koji – grains and/or soybeans enrobed with a mold culture. (300 BCE to 2012)’, Soyinfo Centre, 2012.
17. Jiyuan Ma et al., ‘Constituents of Red Yeast Rice, Traditional Chinese Food and Medicine’, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Nov 2000, vol. 48 (11), pg. 5220-5.
18. Endo A. as quoted in Lyons KS & Harbinson L, ‘[Cholesterol lowering drugs] in the Beginning’, Journal of Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 2009, vol. 39 (4), pg. 362–4
19. Hyperlipidemia, Clinical Key, Elsevier, https://www.clinicalkey.com/topics/cardiology/hyperlipidemia.html.
20. Akira Endo, ‘The Origin of [cholesterol lowering drugs]’, Atherosclerosis Supplements, Oct 2004, vol. 5 (3), pg.125–130.
21. Dr. Mercola, Interview with Dr. Stephen Sinatra: ‘LDL (Bad) Cholesterol may not be so bad after all – What you need to know’, 17 Dec 2011, articles.mercola.com.
22. Debarati S Sen, ‘How Stress Affects Youngsters’, 12Feb 2013, The Times of India.
23. FAQs, South Asian Heart Center, southasianheartcenter.org.
24. Mercedes Serrano, ‘Comparison of Red Yeast Rice with Placebo in [cholesterol lowering drug]-Intolerant Adult Patients with Hyperlipidemia’, 2010, Paper 197, Pacific University, School of Physician Assistant Studies.
25. David J. Becker et al, ‘Red Yeast Rice for Dyslipidemia in [cholesterol lowering drug]-Intolerant Patients: A Randomized Trial’, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2009, vol. 150 (12), pg. 830-839.
26. Stephen Daniells, ‘Red yeast rice ‘safely’ reduces cholesterol levels and inflammatory markers: Italian study’, 29 August 2013, nutraingredients-usa.com.
27. Rajeev Gupta et al., ‘Secular trends in cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides and prevalence of dyslipidemias in an urban Indian population’, Lipids in Health and Disease, Oct 2008, 7:40.
28. Krishnaswami V et al as quoted in Sawant AM et al., ‘Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Young Adult Indian Population’, Journal of Association of Physicians of India, Feb 2008, vol. 56, pg. 99-102.
29. Heber et al., ‘Cholesterol Lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red yeast rice dietary supplement’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Feb 1999, vol. 69 (2), pg. 231-6.
30. High Cholesterol – Causes, www.nhs.uk.
31. Joshua Knowles MD PhD, ‘Focus on Familial Hypercholesterolemia’, April 10 2013, Stanford University Health Library, www.shlnews.org.
32. Sathasivam S & Lecky B as quoted in Potgieter et al., ‘Primary and Secondary Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency: The Role of Therapeutic Supplementation’, Nutrition Reviews, 2013, vol. 71(3), pg. 180-8.
33. High Blood Cholesterol Levels, Medline Plus, National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus.
34. Understand your risk for Excessive Blood Clotting, 31 Jan 2013, American Heart Association, www.heart.org.
35. Smoking and Cancer: What’s in a Cigarette, Cancer Research UK, www.cancerresearchuk.org.